Nilai Referensi Pemeriksaan Kimia Darah


TEST NORMAL VALUE* CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 7-18 mg/dL Increased in renal disease and dehydration; decreased in liver damage and malnutrition
Carbon dioxide (CO2) (includes bicarbonate) 23-30 mmol/L Useful to evaluate acid-base balance by measuring total carbon dioxide in the blood: Elevated in vomiting and pulmonary disease; decreased in diabetic acidosis, acute renal failure, and hyperventilation
Chloride (Cl) 98-106 mEq/L Increased in dehydration, hyperventilation, and congestive heart failure; decreased in vomiting,diarrhea, and fever
Creatinine 0.6-1.2 mg/dL Produced at a constant rate and excreted by the kidney; increased in kidney disease
Glucose Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL Random: 85-125 mg/dL Increased in diabetes and severe illness; decreased in insulin overdose or hypoglycemia
Potassium (K) 3.5-5 mEq/L Increased in renal failure, extensive cell damage, and acidosis; decreased in vomiting, diarrhea, and excess administration of diuretics or IV fluids
Sodium (Na) 101-111 mEq/L or 135-148 mEq/L (depending on test) Increased in dehydration and diabetes insipidus; decreased in overload of IV fluids, burns,diarrhea, or vomiting
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 10-40 U/L Used to diagnose and monitor treatment of liver disease and to monitor the effects of drugs on the liver; increased in myocardial infarction
Albumin 3.8-5.0 g/dL Albumin holds water in blood; decreased in liver disease and kidney disease
Albumin-globulin ratio (A/G ratio) Greater than 1 Low A/G ratio signifies a tendency for edema because globulin is less effective than albumin at holding water in the blood
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 20-70 U/L (varies by method) Enzyme of bone metabolism; increased in liver disease and metastatic bone disease
Amylase 21-160 U/L Used to diagnose and monitor treatment of acute pancreatitis and to detect inflammation of the salivary glands
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 0-41 U/L (varies) Enzyme present in tissues with high metabolic activity; increased in myocardial infarction and liver disease
Bilirubin, total 0.2-1.0 mg/dL Breakdown product of hemoglobin from red blood cells; increased when excessive red blood cells are being destroyed or in liver disease
Calcium (Ca) 8.8-10.0 mg/dL Increased in excess parathyroid hormone production and in cancer; decreased in alkalosis, elevated phosphate in renal failure, and excess IV fluids
Cholesterol 120-220 mg/dL desirable range Screening test used to evaluate risk of heart disease; levels of 200 mg/dL or above indicate increased risk of heart disease and warrant further investigation
Creatine phosphokinase (CPK or CK) Men: 38-174 U/L Women: 96-140 U/L Elevated enzyme level indicates myocardial infarction or damage to skeletal muscle. When elevated,specific fractions (isoenzymes) are tested for
Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) Men: 6-26 U/L Women: 4-18 U/L Used to diagnose liver disease and to test for chronic alcoholism
Globulins 2.3-3.5 g/dL Proteins active in immunity; help albumin keep water in blood
Iron, serum (Fe) Men: 75-175 g/dL Women:65-165 /dL Decreased in iron deficiency and anemia; increased in hemolytic conditions
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) Men: 30-70 mg/dL Women:30-85 mg/dL Used to evaluate the risk of heart disease
Lactic dehydrogenase(LDH or LD) 95-200 U/L (Normal ranges vary greatly) Enzyme released in many kinds of tissue damage, including myocardial infarction, pulmonary infarction, and liver disease
Lipase 4-24 U/L (varies with test) Enzyme used to diagnose pancreatitis
Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) 80-140 mg/dL Used to evaluate the risk of heart disease
Magnesium (Mg) 1.3-2.1 mEq/L Vital in neuromuscular function; decreased levels may occur in malnutrition, alcoholism, pancreatitis, diarrhea
Phosphorus ((Page*)) (inorganic) 2.7-4.5 mg/dL Evaluated in response to calcium; main store is in bone: elevated in kidney disease; decreased in excess parathyroid hormone
Protein, total 6-8 g/dL Increased in dehydration, multiple myeloma;decreased in kidney disease, liver disease, poor nutrition, severe burns, excessive bleeding
Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) > See Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) > See Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
Thyroxin (T4) 5-12.5 g/dL (varies) Screening test of thyroid function; increased in hyperthyroidism; decreased in myxedema and hypothyroidism
Thyroid-stimulatinghormone (TSH) 0.5-6 mlU/L Produced by pituitary to promote thyroid gland function; elevated when thyroid gland is not functioning
Triiodothyronine (T3) 120-195 mg/dL Elevated in specific types of hyperthyroidism
Triglycerides Men: 40-160 mg/dL Women: 35-135 mg/dL An indication of ability to metabolize fats; increased triglycerides and cholesterol indicate high risk of atherosclerosis
Uric acid Men: 3.5-7.2 mg/dL Women:2.6-6.0 mg/dL Produced by breakdown of ingested purines in food and nucleic acids; elevated in kidney disease, gout, and leukemia

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Nilai Normal Laboratorium

Determination Normal Reference Value
Conventional units SI units
Blood, Plasma or Serum
Ammonia (NH3) – diffusion 20-120 mcg/dl 12-70 mcmol/L
Ammonia Nitrogen 15-45 µg/dl 11-32 µmol/L
Amylase 35-118 IU/L 0.58-1.97 mckat/L
Anion gap (Na+-[Cl + HCO3 ]) (P) 7-16 mEq/L 7-16 mmol/L
Antithrombin III (AT III) 80–120 U/dl 800–1200 U/L
Bicarbonate
Arterial 21–28 mEq/L 21–28 mmol/L
Venous 22–29 mEq/L 22–29 mmol/L
Bilirubin
Conjugated (direct) Total £ 0.2 mg/dl
&
0.1–1 mg/dl
£ 4 mcmol/L
&
2–18 mcmol/L
Calcitonin < 100 pg/ml < 100 ng/L
Calcium
Total 8.6–10.3 mg/dl 2.2–2.74 mmol/L
Ionized 4.4–5.1 mg/dl 1–1.3 mmol/L
Carbon dioxide content (plasma) 21–32 mmol/L 21–32 mmol/L
Carcinoembryonic antigen < 3 ng/ml < 3 mcg/L
Chloride 95–110 mEq/L 95–110 mmol/L
Coagulation screen
Bleeding time 3–9.5 min 180–570 sec
Prothrombin time 10–13 sec 10–13 sec
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 22–37 sec 22–37 sec
Protein C 0.7–1.4 µ/ml 700–1400 U/ml
Protein S 0.7–1.4 µ/ml 700–1400 U/ml
Copper, total 70–160 mcg/dl 11–25 mcmol/L
Corticotropin (ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone) – 0800 hr < 60 pg/ml < 13.2 pmol/L
Cortisol
0800 hr 5–30 mcg/dl 138–810 nmol/L
1800 hr 2–15 mcg/dl 50–410 nmol/L
2000 hr £ 50% of 0800 hr £ 50% of 0800 hr
Creatine kinase
Female 20–170 IU/L 0.33–2.83 mckat/L
Male 30–220 IU/L 0.5–3.67 mckat/L
Creatinine kinase isoenzymes, MB fraction 0–12 IU/L 0–0.2 mckat/L
Creatinine 0.5–1.7 mg/dl 44–150 mcmol/L
Fibrinogen (coagulation factor I) 150–360 mg/dl 1.5–3.6 g/L
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Female 2–13 mlU/ml 2–13 IU/L
Midcycle 5–22 mlU/ml 5–22 IU/L
Male 1–8 mlU/ml 1–8 IU/L
Glucose, fasting 65–115 mg/dl 3.6–6.3 mmol/L
Glucose Tolerance Test (Oral)
(mg/dl) (mmol/L)
Normal Diabetic Normal Diabetic
Fasting 70–105 > 140 3.9–5.8 > 7.8
60 min 120–170 ³ 200 6.7–9.4 ³ 11.1
90 min 100–140 ³ 200 5.6–7.8 ³ 11.1
120 min 70–120 ³ 140 3.9–6.7 ³ 7.8
(g) – Glutamyltransferase (GGT)
Male 9–50 units/L 9–50 units/L
Female 8–40 units/L 8–40 units/L
Haptoglobin 44–303 mg/dl 0.44–3.03 g/L
Hematologic Tests
Fibrinogen 200–400 mg/dl 2–4 g/L
Hematocrit (Hct)
female 36%-44.6% 0.36–0.446 fraction of 1
male 40.7%-50.3% 0.4–0.503 fraction of 1
Hemoglobin A 1C 5.3%-7.5% of total Hgb 0.053–0.075
Hemoglobin (Hb)
female 12.1–15.3 g/dl 121–153 g/L
male 13.8–17.5 g/dl 138–175 g/L
Leukocyte count (WBC) 3800–9800/mcl 3.8–9.8 x 109/L
Erythrocyte count (RBC)
female 3.5–5 x 106/mcl 3.5–5 x 1012/L
male 4.3–5.9 x 106/mcl 4.3–5.9 x 1012/L
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 80–97.6 mcm3 80–97.6 fl
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 27–33 pg/cell 1.66–2.09 fmol/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrate (MCHC) 33–36 g/dl 20.3–22 mmol/L
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (sedrate, ESR) £30 mm/hr £30 mm/hr
Erythrocyte enzymes
Glucose-6 – Pphosphate dehydrognase (G-6-PD) 250–5000 units/106 cells 250–5000 mcunits/cell

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Jadwal Imunisasi

JADWAL IMUNISASI 2006

REKOMENDASI IKATAN DOKTER ANAK (IDAI) PERIODE 2006

JENIS
VAKSIN
UMUR PEMBERIAN VAKSINASI
BULAN TAHUN
LHR 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 12 15 18 2 3 5 6 10 12
PROGRAM PENGEMBANGAN IMUNISASI (PPI – diwajibkan)
BCG
HEPATITIS B 1 2 3
POLIO 0 1 2 3 4 5
DTP 1 2 3 4 5 6
CAMPAK 1 2
PROGRAM IMUNISASI NON-PPI (dianjurkan)
Hib 1 2 3 4
PNEUMOKOKUS (PVC) 1 2 3 4
INFLUENZA DIBERIKAN SETAHUN SEKALI
MMR 1 2
TIFOID ULANGAN TIAP 3 TAHUN
HEPATITIS A 2x INTERVAL 6 – 12 BLN
VARISELA

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Uji Kompetensi… Siapa yang mau ikut hayo ?

Ujian Kompetensi Tahun 2008 ini akan di adakan pada tanggal:

  • 16 Agustus 2008
  • 15 November 2008

Sistem KBK tidak menjalani Uji Kompetensi, tetapi menjalani Internship
sebagai gantinya.
Perpanjangan SIP perlu CPD (250 SKP)

Tujuannya adalah :
Memberikan informasi berkenaan kompetensi pengetahuan, keterampilan, dan sikap dari para lulusan dokter umum secara komprehensif kepada pemegang kewewenangan dalam pemberian sertifikat kompetensi Continue reading

The Scary Anaphylactic Story…


Dear para rekan-rekan dokter dan juga para koass (“kok aku selalu salah… ?) berikut ada “sekelumit” makalah tentang shock anafilaksis yang sering menghantui para dokter. Makalah ini saya kumpulkan dari beberapa kepustakaan, untuk kepentingan penulisan di format blog ini saya tidak mencantumkan narasumber dari berbagai kepustakaan yang saya buat, tapi bila ada yang ingin tahu, silakan email saya ntar insya Allah saya balas dgn kepustakaannya. Saya juga Continue reading